Database security refers to protective digital privacy measures that are applied to prevent unauthorized access to computer, databases and websites

(i)Database security ensure that physical damage to the server doesn’t result in the loss of data

(ii)Database security block attacks from unauthorised users or hackers. this prevents the loss of sensitive information

(iii)Database security prevent malware infections and stop viruses stealing data

(i)Physical data model
(ii)Conceptual data model
(iii)Canonical data model
(iv)Application data model

Physical data model:-Physical data models describe how data is stored in the computer, representing information such as record structures, record ordering and access paths. it also represents how the model will be built in the database


Mobile phone:-Mobile phone also known as cellular phone , cell phone and a hand phone is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. it does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network

Vending machine:-A  vending machine is a machine which dispenses items such as snacks, beverages, alcohol, cigarettes, lottery tickets, cologne, customer products and even gold and gems to customers automatically, after the customer inserts currency or credit into the machine.

Cash Register:-A cash register also referred to as  a mechanical or electronic device for calculating and recording sales transactions and an attached cash drawer for storing cash. The cash register also usually prints a receipt for the customer

Fax machine:-Fax machine also known as facsimile or tele copying, is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material, both text and images, normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device. The receiving fax machine reconverts the coded image, printing a paper copy.

Point of sale machine:-A point of sale/service (POS)machine is used to conduct retail transactions. It can provide many services, including credit card processing, check reading and cash transactions, depending on the model.


(i)Data models can facilitate interaction among the designer, the applications programmer and the end user.

(ii)data models can  greatly improve user  experience and increase  the efficiency of data utilization.

(iii)Data models make data statistics more consistent and reduce the possibility of computing errors

(iv)Data models can significantly reduce unnecessary data redundancy, reduce the storage and computing costs for a big data system

A standard data model or industry standard data model(ISDM)is a data model that is widely applied in some industry and share amongst competitors to some degree. They  are often defined by standards bodies, database vendors or operating system vendors

(In Tabular form)
(i)Preventive maintenance is the  act of a regularly scheduled check of the computer hardware or  software to help ensure it  continues to operate  properly.
Corrective maintenance  is a form of maintenance  that is performed after a  fault or problem emerges  in the system, with the  goal of restoring  operability.

(ii)preventive maintenance in computer system is done frequently(preventing problem)
Corrective maintenance in computer system is done randomly (when problem occurs)


(Take note:Discuss not explanation)

NAPIER BONES:-John napier ( 1550 – 1617 ), a Scottish mathematician , is mostly known for his invention of logarithms, a device that revolutionized calculation by reducing difficult and tedious multiplication to addition of table entries. In 1614 john Napier made a more sophisticated computing machine called the napier  bones. This was a small instrument made of 10rods on which the multiplication table was engraved. It was made of  the strips of ivory bones, and so the name Napier bones. This device enable multiplication in fast manner,  if one of the numbers was of one digit only.

JACQUARD LOOM:- In 1801 , Joseph Marie  Jacquard , a French textile weaver , invented a power loom with an automatic card reader. This  power loom used a series of cards with holes punched at different position. To automatic the weaving process, these cards were placed between the needles and the thread, therefore creating different patterns. The presence or absence of a hole in a punched card representing the two digits of the binary system, which is the base for all modern digital computer.

(i)Pascal calculator
(ii)Slide rule
(iv)Analytical engine

(i)creating fast and easily formatted tables for  pasting into form letters,
billings, PowerPoint presentations

(ii)To sort and compare databases in order to  locate differences of  incomplete files or to better prove accuracy of files needing certification
or authentication

(iii)It create and  develop Budgets, produce graphs and charts, and for storing and sorting data

Title bar:-Is  used to display the name of the application, or the name of the open document, and may provide title bar buttons for minimizing, maximizing, closing or rolling up of application windows.

Status bar:- Is located at the bottom of Internet browser windows and many application  windows and displays the current state of the web page or application being displayed.

Row heading:-Is the grays colored column located to the left of column 1 in the  worksheet containing
the numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.) used to identify each row in the worksheet

(iv)Spreadsheet is used in producing loan  amortization schedules and statistical analyses

Manu Bar:-t provides the user with a standard  place in a window to find the majority of a program’s essential  functions, such as opening and closing files, editing text, and quitting the program.


Source: CodedExam

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